Math Problema problem that can be solved, with the methods of mathematics. In order for the real world problem to become a mathematical one, it is necessary to construct its mathematical model.
A mathematical problem is a problem that is amenable to being represented, analyzed, and possibly solved, with the methods of mathematics. This can be a real-world problem, such as computing the orbits of the planets in the solar system, or a problem of a more abstract nature, such as Hilbert's problems.
It can also be a problem referring to the nature of mathematics itself, such as Russell's Paradox.